Less raw material and energy are used in the manufacture of HTIWs than is the case for traditional refractory products. Moreover, HTIW products contribute to more efficient use of energy in industrial installations through improved insulation. It has been estimated that HTIW enables energy savings of up to €2bn per year in Europe and carbon dioxide reductions of up to 12 million tons p.a. Also, being used in the manufacture of motor vehicle catalytic converters and particle filters, HTIW are an indispensable element of the environmental efforts of the automotive industry. There are no health or environmental concerns regarding environmental releases of HTIW fibres.