These have standard size and shapes. These may be further divided into standard shapes and special shapes. Standard shapes have dimension that are conformed by most refractory manufacturers and are generally applicable to kilns or furnaces of the same types. Standard shapes are usually bricks that have a standard dimension of 9 x 4-1/2 x 2-1/2 inches (230 x 114 x 64 mm) and this dimension is called a "one brick equivalent". "Brick equivalents" are used in estimating how many refractory bricks it takes to make an installation into an industrial furnace. There are ranges of standard shapes of different sizes manufactured to produce walls, roofs, arches, tubes and circular apertures etc. Special shapes are specifically made for specific locations within furnaces and for particular kilns or furnaces. Special shapes are usually less dense and therefore less hard wearing than standard shapes. Precast refractory shape technology has become a specialized field within the refractory industry in recent years. As demands increase for greater refractory lining performance and lower maintenance costs, refractory users are finding that one effective way to achieve those goals is to incorporate a broader use of precast refractory shapes into their lining systems. Across virtually all industries – petrochemical, steel, power generation, metal casting and treatment, wood products, minerals processing and others - the applications for precast shapes are limited only by the imagination, and almost invariably their use results in better performance and lower cost. This article discusses the design and manufacture of precast refractory shapes, and the benefits to material properties and installation logistics.